Unit 3. Lesson 1. Inventions and Discoveries
2a. Find the right ending from the box.
1. A person who designs building is called an architect.
2. A person who designs engines and machines are called an engineer.
3. A person who has invented / designed something that hasn’t existed before is called an inventor.
4. A person who creates work of arts, painting or drawings is called an artist.
4a. Listen about Daedalus and his son again and find the words which mean.
— A building in which you can spend years without finding your way out — labyrinth.
— Not easy — challenging.
— Something you shouldn’t tell other people — secret.
— Candles are made of — wax.
— to die under water — drown.
4b. Listen about Leonardo da Vinci and match.
1) Launch means send into the sky;
2) in reverse means backwards;
3) description means something that tells you what something is like;
4) pedals means parts of a bicycle.
7d) Read the stories and insert the past simple of the verbs from the box.
...The British secret service used it for breaking German secret radio messages... Ancient Greeks ate a flat bread with many toppings... In opened its doors in 1830 and is still in business today. People waited for hours to buy it. They bought it for 4 000 US dollars... Leonardo da Vinchi made many drawings of helicopters. They flipped a coin and Wilbur won. He flew for a 12 seconds, at 120 feet (37 metres).
1. Match the sciences with their definitions.
a) Science about the earth, including the origin and history of rocks is geology,
c) Science about plants and their structure is botany,
d) Science about life of plants and animals is biology,
e) Science about matter and energy such as heat, light, sound etc. is physics.
3a. Tell about what scientists these people were.
Charles Darwin was a naturalist and biologist. Isaak Newton was a mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. Dmitry Mendeleyev was a chemist and inventor. Nicola Copernic was an astronomer, mathematician and physicist. Ivan Pavlov was a physiologist. Michael Faradey was a physicist and chemist.
3b. Start the sentences with the words from the box.
1. Linguistics. 2. Astronomy. 3. Psychology. 4. Meteorology. 5. Biology.
READING & GRAMMAR
1a. Read about Serhiy Korolyov and complete the text with the words from the box.
Academician Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov, the famous (1) scientist and designer of space-rocket systems, was born in the city of Zhytomyr in the family of teacher. From 1927 he worked in the aircraft (2) industry. In 1930, without leaving his job he (3) graduated from Moscow Bauman Higher Technical School and finished a flying school in Zhytomyr in the same year.
After a meeting with Tsiolkovsky and studying his ideas, Korolyov became a (4) space enthusiast. He was one of the (5) founders of modern space-rocket engineering.
In 1933, when the Group of Studying Jet Propulsion was organized, and the first experimental rockets were made and (6) tested, Korolyov devoted himself to (7) developing space-rocket engineering...
He controlled the spaceships, in which man first flew into (8) rocket and from which he walked out into space.
Korolyov trained many scientists and engineers who are now leading the work in (9) research institutes and design offices which specialize in the sphere of space-rocket (10) engineering.
2. Complete the following sentences with the right form of the present simple passive (positive or negative) of the verbs in the box.
1. Steam locomotives were used in the past, but they are used today.
2. A lot of experiments are done in Chemistry classes.
3. Science subjects are found to be difficult to understand by many students.
4. Old and precious things are kept and looked after in a museum.
5. "Science Night" is organized for children and their parents when they are invited to spend an evening doing fun science-based activities and then spend the night in the museum among the exhibits.
6. Some amazing inventions and discoveries are considered at the Science Museum.
3a. Do the quiz and find out how much you know about inventions and inventors.
1 b) Albert Einstein. 2 a) Neil Armstrong. 3 a) 1839. 4 a) Marie Curie. 5 b) 1926. 6 a) James Watt. 7 b) the Romans. 8 a) Robert Goddart in 1926.
4. Make right sentences.
1) The first computer was developed in 1848 in Britain.
2) The first telescope was made in 1608 in Holland.
3) The first skyscrapers were built in 1884 in Chicago.
4) Some laws on volume were discovered by Archimedes.
5) The thermometer was invented in 1714.
6) The first bridge was constructed in the city of Babylon in 2 200 BC.
7) An aesthetics was used in surgery for the first time in 1847.
5. Read about the Science Museum and find out:
1) In the museums are displayed steam engines, locomotives, full-sized airplanes and helicopters, cars, space shuttles and computers.
2) You can see the story of men’s discoveries and scientific achievements chronologically.
3) The museum is special because of many interactive exhibits.
6. Match the words with their definitions.
1. Remarkable — amazing, worth remembering.
2. To fasten — to make something fix.
3. Humanity — human beings in general.
4. An achievements — something important or successful that you have done.
5. An exhibit — something that is shown especially in a museum.
6. A theme park — an amusement park based on a single subject.
7b) Complete the texts (1-4) with the names of the corresponding inventions and discoveries from Task (a).
1. The structure of DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) was deciphered in 1953, by Francis Crick and James Watson.
2. The television set was invented by a Scottish inventor John Logie Baird in 1926, and it was first demonstrated in Selfridges, a department store in London.
3. The first personal computer that was made for individual use called Apple II...
4. The words first practical four wheeled the automobile that was powered by a gasoline engine was designed and built in 1885 by Karl Benz.
8. Say if the following sentences are true or false.
1. F: the structure of DNA was discovered in 1953.
2. F: the television set was first demonstrated in a department store in London.
3. F: the first personal computer was launched by Apple.
9. Complete the following sentences with the past simple passive of the verbs in brackets.
1. The first TV remote controls were used in the 1950s in the USA. One of the early models was developed in 1952, and it was called "Lazy Bones".
2. In 1996 a sheep called ‘Dolly’ was cloned by British scientists from a single cell that was taken from a six-year-old female sheep.
3. Clothes were hand-washed by rubbing the clothing with rocks in a river or by using a wash-board before the invention of the washing machine.
4. The first affordable cars were produced by Henri Ford.
5. Text messages were used in the USA in the mid 2000s.
6. The Internet began in 1969 as the Arpanet data network which was established by the US Department of Defense and was supposed to link computer networks at several universities and research laboratories in the United States.
2. Match the beginnings with the endings to make correct sentences.
1. When you listen to your MP3, surf the Internet or use your mobile phone, you are plugged in.
2. If you have a pastime of your own choice, you can ‘unplug’ and focus on sports and opportunities in real life.
3. Any hobby will change your teen's life for the better.
4. The lives of most teenagers depend on electricity and batteries.
5. No matter what kind of hobby it is, it gives you a sense of purpose in life.
6. If you learn English, you can try to create posters of your country for English speaking tourists.
4a. Guess the objects mentioned below.
1. A mobile phone. 2. A bike.